Large northern fish, which gave the name to a large family of representatives of the ichthyofauna. The appearance of the fish is well known. This is a spindle-shaped body with a large head. The mouth is large, the presence of pronounced teeth depends on the type of cod.
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Characteristics of cod
A characteristic feature of almost all codfish is the antenna on the lower jaw. With all the diversity of species in the cod family, cod itself also has a number of subspecies. Considering the outward similarity with other crack-like fish, cod is called several representatives of the family, as an example tr, arctic esca, which is closer in relation to the cod (polar cod). At the same time, Baltic cod, Atlantic, White Sea, Pacific, Greenland, black and others belong to the genus Gadus (actually cod).
Scientists share fish species not only according to possible morphological features, but also according to their lifestyle. The living conditions of the fish can vary greatly. If the Atlantic cod is characterized by the existence of Atlantic seas in dense salty bottom water levels, then the White Sea cod can adhere to higher layers of water. In general, cod species such as the Baltic and White Sea have adapted to the low salinity of the habitat, which is an important feature of their subspecies.
Most species of cod cannot live in desalinated areas of the seas, and relic populations of White Sea cod have arisen, which live in island lakes (Kildin Island and others), which appeared when water bodies were connected to the sea. Here, cod lives only in the middle layer of water, because the lower one is characterized by a high content of hydrogen sulfide, and the upper one is highly desalinated. Depending on the species, cod leads a different lifestyle. Some, more settled, others actively move along the shelf zone of the seas, in addition, spawning migrations are characteristic. Food preferences of fish are also very plastic. This can be both small-sized fish, juveniles of closely related species, and various crustaceans and mollusks. The size of the cod varies greatly from species and living conditions. But in general, the fish is considered quite large, the weight can reach more than 40 kg.
Reproduction habit of cod
Cod spawning is directly related to the lifestyle of various subspecies. Pacific cod spawns in the coastal zone, sticky caviar settles to the bottom. In other species, spawning passes in the water column. Spawning sites are tied to sea currents, portioned spawning, fish can be in the spawning zone for about a month. Then it returns to feeding places, as a rule, for thousands of kilometers. Fish reach puberty at the age of 3-5 years. Seasonal spawning takes place in the spring.
Cod fishing guide: Techniques, bait and gear
Cod fishing techniques
Cod is an important and very popular subject of industrial fishing. She is caught with various gear: nets, trawls, tiers, and more. At amateur fishermen, fans of sea fishing in the cold waters of the Northern Hemisphere, cod is also a favorite trophy. Given the lifestyle, the main type of recreational fishing is spinning for plumb fishing. Under certain conditions, cod can be caught from the shore onto bottom and spinning gear “in cast”.
Cod fishing on a plumb line
Fishing takes place from boats of various classes at great depths of the northern seas. For fishing, anglers use marine-class spinning rods. For gear, as in the case of trolling, the main requirement is reliability. The reels should be with an impressive supply of fishing line or cord. In addition to a trouble-free brake system, the coil must be protected against salt water. Bottom fishing from a vessel may differ in the principles of feeding the bait. In many types of sea fishing, quick reeling of tackle may be required, which means a high gear ratio of the winding mechanism. According to the principle of action, the coils can be either multiplier or inertia-free. Accordingly, the rods are selected depending on the reel system.
In bottom fishing of sea fish, fishing technique is very important. In order to select the correct wiring, consult with experienced local fishermen or guides. Cod forms large clusters, with active biting experienced anglers and guides do not recommend the use of multi-hook gear. When biting several fish at the same time, fishing can turn into a difficult, hard work. Very large individuals come across infrequently, but the fish have to be raised from considerable depths, which creates great physical stress when fishing prey.
It is difficult to name any baits and baits that are considered the most popular. Universal, you can consider various vertical spinners. The use of snap-ins for natural baits (“dead fish” or slicing) is also quite relevant. In the case of fishing with a tapping on the bottom, various accessories with lead sinkers of various shapes are suitable: from “topple ” to curved “droplets”, of sufficient weight, for use at great depths. The leash, most often, is attached sequentially and sometimes has a length of up to 1 m (usually 30-40 cm). Accordingly, the hooks must be selected relative to the intended production and sufficient strength.
Many accessories are additionally equipped with beads or various octopuses and other things. It is worth noting here that the use of various accessories increases the versatility and ease of use of equipment, but requires a more careful attitude to the reliability of gear. It is necessary to use only high-quality products, otherwise “unexpected” trophy losses may occur. The fishing principle is quite simple, after lowering the sinker in a vertical position to a predetermined depth, the fisherman makes periodic twitches with gear, on the principle of vertical gait. In the case of active biting, this is sometimes not necessary. “Landing” fish on hooks can occur when lowering the equipment or from the pitching of the vessel.
Cod fishing bait
When using various baits and rigs, it is possible to use both artificial nozzles such as octopuses of vibro-tails and others, and natural ones. It can be sea worms, shellfish, shrimp, slicing of various fish and their entrails. Often use combined lures using both artificial and natural baits, for example, vibrotail + shrimp and more.
Where to catch cod
Cod and its subspecies are widespread enough in the cold seas of the northern hemisphere. As already mentioned, the conditions of existence and the propensity for migration depend on the species. Atlantic cod can travel thousands of kilometers from spawning grounds to feeding grounds. The Pacific subspecies is settled and performs only seasonal migrations from the coast to nearby depths. Cod prefers to stay in the bottom layers of water, while the depths can be quite large. In the vertical plane, the habitat of the cod extends to a depth of about 1 km.